八年级上册英语语法整理

学习啦  於宝   2019-12-07 13:53:05

  语法的学习是我们学习英语的重要基础知识点,今天小编要和大家分享的是八年级上册英语语法整理(人教版),希望能够帮助到大家好好学习并掌握这部分知识,赶快学习起来吧。

  八年级上册英语语法整理(人教版)

  Unit 1 How often do you exercise?

  Grammar: 特殊疑问句:wh-questions: what, who, where, when, which, whose, why, whom等。

  特殊疑问句的构成及用法:

  1.结构:特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句,即:特殊疑问词+be/助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语/表语(+其他)

  疑问代词:

  1) Who:谁。做主语,用来指人 Who is the boy under the tree?

  2)Whom 谁,做宾语,用来指人 Whom are you writing to?

  3) Whose 谁的,用来指所属关系,如果做定语,一般后接名词 Whose pen is this?

  4) Which 哪个,哪些,用来指对人或物在一定范围之内进行选择 Which girls will be in the sports meeting?

  Which pen is Lily’s?

  5)What什么,通常指物,也可指人,一般用在没有指出范围的情况下 What can you see in the picture? What are you doing now?

  疑问副词:

  1)When:何时,询问时间 When will she come back?

  2)Where何地,询问地点, Where do you come from?

  3)Why为什么,询问原因, Why are you late for school?

  4)How 如何,询问手段、方式、工具以及程度等

  How do you usually go to school?

  5)How old多大,询问年龄,How old is Jim’s little brother?

  6)How many/much多少,询问数量

  How many birds are there in the tree?

  7)How far多远,询问距离,

  How far is it form your home to school?

  8)How long多长,多久,询问时间的长度或距离

  How long will you stay in Beijing?

  9)How often多长时间按一次,询问频率

  How often do you go to see your grandparents?

  10How soon多久,询问时间 How soon will you come back?

  频率副词:表示动作发生的频率,never, hardly ever,sometimes, often, usually, always.

  Unit 2 What’s the matter with you?

  Grammar:

  1. 用have 来描述身体不适 have/have got a +疾病名字;得了……病

  2.情态动词should,情态动词should,can, may, must没有人称和时态的变化,后接动词原形.

  Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?

  Grammar:现在进行时表将来 一般将来时

  表示将要做某事或计划打算做某事要用到句型“be+doing”其中be是助动词,它有人称和单复数的变化。Be: am, is, are. be + v.ing是现在进行时的形式,但用于表示将来。用进行时表将来,常用于表示即将来临的未来预定要做的事情,一般指个人计划要做的事。用于此情况的动词一般是表示位置转移的动词,如,go, come, leave, start, arrive, move等。

  一.肯定句中,结构为“be+doing.”

  I am going shopping this afternoon.

  二.否定句是在be之后加not. I’m not going to shopping this afternoon.

  三.一般疑问句是将be置于句首 Are you going shopping this afternoon?—Yes, I am/ we are. No, I’m not./ We aren’t.

  四.特殊疑问句“疑问词+一般疑问句语序。”

  What are you doing for vacation?

  When is he going camping?

  Who are you going there with?

  Where is she going?

  Unit 4 How do you get to school?

  Grammar: How引导的特殊疑问句:是指以How, how far, how long, how old,how many, how much等词开头的疑问句。

  How does he get to shool?---- He takes the train to get to shool.

  How long does it take to walk? ----It takes about 35 minutes to walk.

  How far is it from your home to school? It’s four miles from my home to school.

  How old is he now? She is twelve years old now.

  How many storybooks do you have? I have five storybooks.

  How much is this coat? This coat is 200 yuan.

  特殊疑问句的简略结构:how about…?+ 名词或动词-ing形式,用于提出建议、请求或征求意见、询问消息等。如:How about playing tennis?

  乘坐交通工具的表达方式:by subway/train/bike..., on foot ...

  I usually take the bus to school./I usually go to school by bus(on/in the bus).

  My father sometimes rides his bike to work./My father sometimes goes to work by bike(on his bike).

  My grandmother always walks to the supermarket./My grandmother always goes to the supermarket on foot.

  Unit 5 Can you come to my party?

  Grammar:情态动词can及邀请句式及其问答

  一.情态动词can的用法:

  Can 是最长用的情态动词,其后跟动词原形,can的否定形式为cannot,can’t.

  1.can表“能力”,意思是:能,会 I can play basketball,but I can’t swim.

  2.can表示能力时可和be able to 互换,be able to有更多的时态,常被用来表示can所不能表示的将来或完成的概念。E.g. They will be able to make a model spaceship in three months.

  3.表示“可能性”,意思是:可以,可能。That big cinema can seat 5,000 people.

  4.表示允许,意思是可以能够 You can have the book when I have finished it.

  5.表示“惊讶、不相信等(用于疑问句、否定句或感叹句中”。意思是“会、可能。”

  This can’t be true. Can it be true?

  二.如何发出、接受和谢绝别人的邀请

  1.表达邀请的常用句型:

  Can you come to…?

  Could you come to…?

  Would you like to come to…?

  Do you want to come to…?

  2.接受邀请的常用句型:

  Sure. Certainly. Of course. OK. I’d love to.

  3.谢绝邀请的常用句型:

  I’m sorry, I can’t. but I have to…

  I’m afraid I can’t. I have to…

  I don’t think I can. I have to…/Im doing.....

  Unit 6 I’m more outgoing than my sister.

  Grammar:形容词的比较级

  一.规则变化、不规则变化(课本P93)

  二.than 是比较级中最常见的标志词,意思是“比”。用于引出比较的对象。1.He draws better than me.2.You’re older than I am./ You are older than me.

  三.形容词比较级前,有时可以用much,far, a little,a bit, even, three times等词来修饰。much 和far表示“……得多”,much better好得多,a little, a bit表示稍微,一些,一点。a little shorter, 稍微矮点;even表示“甚至,更加,还要……”even bigger还要大些,three times表示 “…三倍”,如three times bigger than 比……大三倍

  Very绝不可以用来修饰比较级,very,so,too, quite 等修饰原级

  Unit 7 How do you make banana milk shake?

  Grammar:

  可数名词与不可数名词

  一.可数名词

  英语中的物质名词大体上可分为可数名词和不可数名词?墒手肝锾宓氖靠墒。其单数形式可在名词前加a或an,表示一个,如a pear. 其复数形式要在词尾加-s,或-es(特殊情况除外),如two bananas, three tomatoes, many apples,a few students

  二.不可数名词

  1.不可数名词指物体的数量不可数。不可数名词没有单复数之分,也不能在词前直接加冠词a 或an.表示不可数名词的数量时可在不可数名词前加相应的由量词构成的短语。如a bag of… 2.常见的量词短语有:

  a piece of… a cup of… a teaspoon of… a bottle of…

  3.不可数名词还可以用下面的词表示数量:much(much rain),

  a little (a little milk).

  4.既可以修饰不可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词的词有:

  Lots of= a lot of许多,大量 some一些(用于肯定句)any一些(用于否定句和一般疑问句)

  Unit 8 How was your school trip?

  Grammar:

  一般过去时:指在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去意义的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last year(week,month…),two years ago, in 2006等。有时也可用when,after,before, as soon as引导的时间状语从句。该时态在句中的体现是谓语动词用过去式。谓语be动词→was/were 否定:wasn’t /weren’t

  一.Be动词句型

  一般疑问句:was/were +主语…

  特殊疑问句:疑问词+was/were+主语

  陈述句:主语+was/were+…(肯定句) 否定句:主语+wasn’t/weren’t+…

  二.行为动词句型(当句中的动词为行为动词时,要借助动词did构成一般疑问句和否定句)

  肯定式:主语+动词过去式

  否定式:主语+didn’t+动词原形

  一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形

  特殊疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形

  Unit 9 When was he born?

  Grammar: 一般过去时的特殊疑问句

  一般过去时的特殊疑问句的变法同一般现在时一样,不同之处在于须将be动词或助动词改为过去时态,即“特殊疑问词+were或was(第三人称单数)+主语+(表语)+其他成分”或“特殊疑问词+助动词did+主语+实义动词+其他成分。”

  一、以when引导的特殊疑问句,对某人的出生年月进行提问,句型是:

  When was/were …born? … was/were born in/on +时间

  When was David beckham born? 大卫.贝克汉姆是什么时候出生的?He was born in 1975/in July 1975/on July 5,1975.

  二.以how long 引导的特殊疑问句,对表示某一短时间的状语进行提问。句型是:

  How long did + 主语+动词?

  How long did Charles Smith hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years and 5 months.

  三.When did he start hiccupping? 他什么时候开始打嗝?When +did+主语+动词?

  Unit 10 I’m going to be a basketball player.

  Grammar:一般将来时

  表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经;蚍锤捶⑸亩,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。

  1. be going to + 动词原形 What are you going to do next Sunday?

  2. will/shall + 动词原形 I will go to my hometown next week.

  3.be +v.ing The Greens are moving to another city the day after tomorrow.

  4. be +动词不定式 You are to be back by 10 o’clock.

  5. be + about + 动词不定式 The meeting is about to begin.

  Unit 11 Could you please clean your room?

  Grammar:情态动词

  情态动词,表示说话者对某一动作的看法和态度,包括可能、怀疑、允许、愿望、必要、猜测等。Can(能、会),may( 可以),must( 必须、一定)等。

  情态动词的特点:(1)情态动词有一定词义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和另一个动词原形一起构成谓语,且没有人称和数的变化。1. I can speak English. 2. She must be a teacher. 3. We may go home now.

  (2)变否定句时,直接在情态动词后面加not,无需加助动词。He can’t play the guitar well.

  He can’t answer the question. You mustn’t be late.

  (3)含有情态动词的句子变一般疑问句时,须将情态动词提前。Can you help me? Must I go there at once?

  (4)can 可表示能力、允许、可能性、怀疑猜测,意为“能,会,可以。”can’t, 意为“不能,不会,不可以。”,还有“不可能”之意。

  --Can you drive? – Sorry, I can’t. It can’t be true.

  (5)can 也可表示请求与邀请

  Can you please sweep the floor?

  Unit12 What’s the best radio station?

  Grammar:形容词/副词的最高级,用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在一群人或事物中,其中一个 “最……”见课本p93语法

  1.the +最高级 She is the tallest of all her classmates.

  2.the +序数词+最高级 He is the third tallest (student) in his class.

  3.表示最高程度的形容词,excellent, extreme, prefect等没有最高级也不能用比较级。He is an excellent teacher.

  4.形容词最高级间修饰做表语或介词并与的名词代词是,被修饰的词往往省略。

  He is the youngest (boy) in his class.

  5.Who/Which +be+最高级,A,B,or C? Which is the most useful, a bicycle, a motorcycle,or a car?

  6.one of the +最高级+复数名词 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China.


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